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What are adaptive physical culture and its functions?

What are adaptive physical culture and its functions?

What does a person need to be happy? The opportunity to live a full life. See, hear, touch, move, the opportunity to do what you love. Everyone can add something of their own to this list. But it always begins the same way – this is our health, which cannot be bought for any money. 

But what about those people who have limited opportunities? Nowadays the word “disabled” is not in use. A child or adult with a disability. This is not a question of tolerance. This is a question of humanity and ethics. It’s enough just to watch how blind people participate in biathlon competitions, people with prosthetic lower limbs run marathons, etc. 

Adaptive physical education is one of the areas of education and training of children with disabilities. Which helps them not to remain “overboard” of modern life, helps them become a full member of society, socialize, etc.

Adaptive physical education – what is it?

Adaptive physical education (APC) combines many disciplines – medicine, anatomy, correctional pedagogy, pathology, etc. All activities of AFC specialists are aimed at the treatment, rehabilitation and socialization of children and adults with disabilities.

An important part in AFC is not only the treatment and rehabilitation of people with disabilities. But their socialization, the opportunity to show them new aspects of their lives, give positive emotions, etc.

This is an incomparable joy from the opportunity to move. Learn something new, communicate with other people, and the opportunity to cope with one’s illness in one way or another. Tell yourself – I can, I do, I live, no matter what. It may be difficult for ordinary people to understand this, because physical capabilities are perceived by us as a given.

Goals and objectives of adaptive physical culture

The goal of adaptive physical education is the health of a person with disabilities. To develop vitality, ensure the functioning of existing physical capabilities (as far as existing health limitations allow). Maximize the characteristics of physical and mental health. 

On the way to this goal, AFC specialists solve the following tasks: 

  • correctional; 
  • compensatory; 
  • preventive; 
  • health-improving and educational; 
  • developing

Corrective and compensatory work is carried out with existing physical abnormalities. (the main disease and associated ones), preventive work is aimed at increasing immunity. Strengthening health and physical strength, and improving general condition. Educational and educational work is aimed at socializing people with AFC. Increasing the level of self-confidence, learning to interact with other people, etc.

Functions of adaptive physical culture

In AFK four groups of functions can be distinguished: 

  • the rehabilitation function includes corrective, compensatory and preventive activities; 
  • the pedagogical function includes educational, educational and vocational training activities; 
  • the function of physical education and sports includes developmental, competitive and creative activities; 
  • social function includes humanistic, socializing and communicative activities. 

Let’s take a closer look at each of these functions.

Rehabilitation function of AFC

Corrective activities within the framework of rehabilitation are aimed at treating and correcting the main and concomitant. (there may be several) diseases and the secondary deviations in physical condition caused by them. 

When performing rehabilitation actions. ROS specialist selects a special set of effects on the body of a child or adult with disabilities using physical exercises. Simultaneously with physical exercises. Correctional pedagogical influence is carried out (training and education through exercises or games) in order to influence not only the physical health. But also the mental state of the patient (his sensory system, intelligence, etc.). This activity also affects the emotional-volitional sphere, cognitive and behavioral sphere. 

Compensatory work is carried out with those people who have had one or another health function irretrievably lost (intellectual impairment, loss of hearing, vision, etc.). Lost functions are compensated by the remaining ones. 

Carrying out preventive work, an AFC specialist uses physical exercises available to the patient in order to prevent physical inactivity or hypokinesia. Which plague people with disabilities. Organized physical activity (within the patient’s capabilities) is necessary to prevent the occurrence of secondary diseases.

Pedagogical function of AFC

The educational and educational activities of an AFC specialist are aimed at developing strategies and tactics for working with children who have certain developmental disabilities. Thanks to educational activities, there is a gradual transition from classes with a specialist (interactive classes) to independent work by the patient. 

A child or an adult, as a result of the work of a specialist, receives special knowledge. Skills, develops a system of healthy lifestyle values, and improves physically and intellectually. A harmoniously developed personality is formed (where developmental deviations allow this). The patient is motivated for self-improvement, self-education, an inferiority complex is overcome, and a sense of self-esteem is formed. 

The professional preparatory work of a specialist in physical activity is aimed at developing and improving those physical skills that are necessary for the patient’s professional capacity. Readiness (physical and psychological) for work is formed, skills and abilities of social and everyday self-service are acquired. 

Function of physical education and sports AFC

Developmental activities within the framework of the function of physical education and sports are aimed at the comprehensive development of the personality of a child or adult with disabilities. Lack of physical development, immaturity of motor functions, inability to fully control one’s movements. All this negatively affects other functions of the body. The work of the ROS specialist here is aimed at developing muscle strength, speed, agility, flexibility, coordination and other physical characteristics. 

Competitive activity carries an important socializing potential. This is an opportunity for people with disabilities to compete with other athletes within the framework of fair competition. Learn to communicate and interact with each other and other participants in the competition. 

Creative activity makes it possible to realize the abilities of people with disabilities, to conduct positive creative activities, to demonstrate their capabilities, character, and personal qualities. 

Social function of AFK

Within the framework of this function, the peculiarities of the relationship of a person with disabilities with society are revealed. Humanistic activities here are aimed at ensuring that people with disabilities are recognized as equal members of society. For whom equal opportunities can and should be provided.

Socializing and communicative activities are aimed at finding opportunities to include a person with disabilities into the life of society. Help him learn the experience of social life, norms of behavior, and help him enter the social environment. This activity continues throughout life. 

To sum up, we would like to pay special attention to the training of a specialist in RFA. Without special competencies in this field, the work of a specialist will not be successful and will be ineffective. 

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For anyone who needs knowledge in this area, we can recommend our course. “Adaptive physical education and sports: organizing and conducting practical classes and training with persons with disabilities . ”

During the course you will receive all the necessary theoretical and practical knowledge for successful work in the field of adaptive physical education.


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